The Trading Path in Alamance County, a Beginning



The following essays suggest some starting-points for locating, studying and preserving the Trading Path routes and stream crossings in the Alamance County area. Portions are extracted from chapter 1, “Places and People” in Carole Watterson Troxler and William Murray Vincent, Shuttle & Plow: A History of Alamance County, North Carolina (Alamance County Historical Association 1999) with permission of the latter for read-only presentation.
Link here to 18th century maps by Moseley, Fry & Jefferson,Collet and Mouzon to accompany the essays.

1. East-west Pattern of the Trading Path Network in Alamance County
copyright 1999 Alamance County Historical Association

The route of the major Trading Path between Indians in east central Virginia and those west of the Yadkin River can be envisioned easily against today’s transportation network in Alamance County, for it formed its basis. With the coming of the railroad in the 1850s, tracks from Hillsborough well into South Carolina maintained the general course of the greater Trading Path. Also, the route is shadowed today by the course that Interstate 85 takes through much of Virginia and North Carolina. The Trading Path also shows in local roadways.
The eighteenth century terms “Indian Trading Path” and “Trading Path” referred to more than one route, because Indians and their trade patterns shifted during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In Alamance County, the name “Trading Path” usually referred to a segment leading from the Siouan settlement at Achoneechy Town (northwest of present-day Hillsborough) westward to today’s Mebane, fording the Haw River at the present town of Haw River, then passing through today’s Graham. The path forded Great Alamance Creek west of Bellemont, then went westward past Alamance Battleground and into Guilford County. In addition, the terms “western Trading Path” and “lower Trading Path” referred to a leg that left Achoneechy Town in a southwestward course. It forded the Haw River where Alamance Creek flows into the river, just south of present Swepsonville. The lower Trading Path continued southwestward through today’s northern Albright Township, then crossed Patterson Township diagonally. In addition to these routes that European settlers called “Trading Paths,” a very important road and ford that Native Americans established at Saxapahaw connected what became southern Alamance County with Achoneechy Town and the greater trading area.
For the first Europeans then, penetration of the Alamance County area was made possible by three well-established routes westward from the Achoneechy settlements. The routes oriented newcomers at the places where they crossed the Haw River, known today as Haw River, Swepsonville, and Saxapahaw. It is of some significance that the northernmost fording place took on a European name in the first half of the eighteenth century: “Pine Ford” or “Piney Ford,” an area better known later as “Trollinger’s” and “Haw River.” Its location on the main Trading Path made it the most frequented and familiar crossing of the Haw River for outsiders. Whatever name Native Americans called the place was lost. The term that English speakers used for the ford indicated a prevalence of pine trees at the site, a feature remarkable enough to provide a name. A strong growth of pines reflected the fact that the land adjacent to the ford had been kept clear of forest growth, presumably by farming, until some 30 to 60 years before the name “Pine Ford” came to be used. Pines require about 30 years to take over cleared land in the natural vegetative progression, and they in turn yield dominance to hardwoods after another 30 or so years. The earliest recorded use of the name “Pine Ford” for the crossing is 1752, when Orange County was created; by then the name was in common use. By contrast, the adjacent “Haw Fields” between the Eno and Haw rivers was described as “fields” and “old fields” or grasslands in the 1720s, remarkably clear of trees of any sort. Such word usage suggests that farming was relinquished within view of the ford as the crossings increased. Maps made in 1733 and 1751 suggest that the Pine Ford crossing came to surpass the one at the confluence of the Haw and Alamance Creek during that time. The Edward Moseley 1733 map shows the Trading Path crossing the river at the confluence, but the Trading Path crosses the Haw upstream near the mouth of Back Creek in the 1751 map made by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson. Otherwise, the Trading Path route is the same, and the difference may reflect no more than the interests of the map makers. The perception of a northward shift of what newcomers considered the main route of the Trading Path near the Haw River, however, is reflected in the way Earl Granville’s land office described the land they surveyed in 1756 for Jacob Henry Trollinger. The surveyor reported the tract as being on the west side of the Haw River, “astride the New Trading Path.”[1] Public gathering and camping at the crossing continued longer on the east bank than on the west. Indians continued using the east side of the river at Pine Ford into the nineteenth century.[2]
Just as the “Pine Ford” vicinity became known as “Trollinger’s,” the ford where the “lower” Trading Path crossed the Haw near the mouth of the Alamance came to be named for a series of mill owners near the site: John Armstrong, Archibald DeBow Murphey, Thomas Ruffin, and finally George Swepson. Saxapahaw, by contrast, kept its Native American name. Although the people from whom the name derived are known generally as “Sissipahaw,” the sound of the name survived remarkably well from the time a Spanish traveler spelled out the sound of the river’s name as “Sauxpa” in 1567.[3] Perhaps Saxapahaw in the south, like Ossipee and Altamahaw in the north, maintained its Indian name as a fording place on the Haw River because it was outside the main traffic flow of the east-west Trading Paths. 
The general courses of several Alamance County roads and streets still closely reflect the Trading Paths and no doubt incorporate stretches of them, particularly at the higher elevations of the original roads. These include Boywood Road, much of Mount Herman-Rock Creek Road, and much of NC 119 northeast of Swepsonville for the “lower” Trading Path. The route of the main Trading Path is reflected in portions of Mebane-Rogers Road and Bason Road between Mebane and Haw River and in NC 49 in Haw River and north Graham. Relatively level terrain and urban changes in Graham and Burlington challenge attempts to site the Trading Path there, but the eastern part of Hanford Road and Monroe Holt Road retain portions of the route between Interstate 85/40 and Alamance Creek. South of Alamance Creek, church and cemetery locations that were accessed by the Trading Path in the eighteenth century indicate that the Bellemont-Alamance Road westward from Sinking Quarter Creek incorporates a stretch of the Trading Path, as does a portion of NC 62 westward from its intersection with the Bellemont-Alamance Road. The road from Saxapahaw toward Achoneechy Town is approximated by part of the Salem Church-Mt. Willing Road in Thompson Township.[4]

2. Pine Ford and Back Creek Crossings of the Trading Path and Some Related Haw River Crossings and Roadways
copyright 1999, Carole Watterson Troxler

     This segment examines documentation for a) the Trading Path crossing of Quaker and Back creeks near their confluence and b) the Trading Path crossing of the Haw River at “Pine Ford” or “Piney Ford,” which ford gave rise to the town of Haw River. 
         Maps drawn by John Collet in 1770 and Henry Mouzon in 1775 show the road crossing an unnamed network of waterways east of a distinctive bend in the Haw River that characterizes the river’s course at the town of Haw River. Such maps were expected to present only the general course of roadways. Typically the map maker drew them from notes and sketches he made at his next stop after traveling a road, or he drew them from descriptions gleaned from other travelers. Stream crossings and road intersections were more important than the shape or scale with which the road itself was represented. The waterways just east of Haw River in the 1770s maps are distinguished by the shape of the lower portion of their main stream, which reveals it to be Back Creek. The tributaries (Back, Otter, Quaker and Stag creeks) are presented almost schematically, fan-like. The map maker’s point is that the road crosses them very near their confluence. Although a few eighteenth century deeds recorded the names of these creeks, usually they were described simply as “the waters of Back Creek.” Some forty years earlier, before the rush of recorded settlers in the 1750s, Edward Moseley had marked Back Creek and its tributaries prominently in his 1733 map, calling it the “Marrow Bone River.”
    Eighteenth century maps depicted four crossings of the Haw River in the Alamance County area. From north to south they were 1) upstream from the Reedy Fork, and on its northern prong; 2) Pine Ford 3) the Alamance Creek confluence and 4) south of Saxapahaw. Given the level of settlement along the Haw by the late eighteenth century, one expects there to have been additional ones as well. Downstream from the Reedy Fork, a ford known to the nineteenth century as “the Shallow Ford” was near a road that was authorized in 1753. The new road roughly paralleled the Haw River on its northeastern side. If the Shallow Ford was not in use already in the 1750s, the presence of the road would have attracted the attention of travelers to its contours.
         After heavy rains, the crossings at Reedy Fork, Shallow Ford and Pine Ford were less likely to be dangerously flooded than were the downstream crossings of the Haw River. Alamance Creek commonly was referred to as a “river,” and it drained a basin reaching far into Guilford County. Moreover, its confluence with the Haw could be swelled by the extensive waters of the Stinking Quarter Creek network. When flood-wary east-west travelers shifted their route northward to avoid the Alamance confluence and crossed the Haw River instead at either Pine Ford, Shallow Ford or the Reedy Fork, they still had to cross “the waters of Back Creek” east of the river. 
     The new 1753 road that roughly paralleled the river connected the river crossing north of Reedy Fork with the stream crossings in “the waters of Back Creek.” It was one of the first roads authorized by the roads commission of the newly created county of Orange. This was prior to Hillsborough’s organization as the county seat. From December 1752 through March 1754, the Orange County court met in a log court house near the crossing of Back Creek’s tributaries.[5] The road commissioners continued meeting there for several sessions after the colonial legislature altered the location of the county seat. Prior to the March 1753 meeting of the county court, the road commissioners ordered three new roads. One of them was to run from the “courthouse  to Giles Tillets,” then on to “Joseph Tates on the east side of Little Troublesome Creek.” Tillet’s land was on the north prong of the Reedy Fork. Tate, Tillet and Joseph Pinson were overseers for cutting and maintaining this road. Pinson also was on the north prong. 
     At the same time, the road commissioners ordered a road from the southern edge of Orange County (the southern edge of present-day Chatham County) northward to intersect the “western or Trading Path” on the southwest side of the Haw River. The purpose of this road was to connect the area served by that section of the Trading Path with Wilmington and its port. Much of this north-south road anticipated present-day N.C. 87 between Pittsboro and Graham. A third road ordered by the commissioners was to go to Upper Saura Town through present-day Caswell and Rockingham counties.[6]
The selection of a courthouse site between Pine Ford and the Quaker-Back confluence reflects the importance of both crossings, short-lived as that courthouse was. The first Orange County court met at John Gray’s home near the Eno River in September 1752. At that session, the justices followed the legislature’s directive to decide where to locate the county seat. They agreed to have it further west, near the Haw River, close enough to Pine Ford for that crossing to give access to people who lived west of the Haw. The court clerk recorded their decision to built the courthouse "near the Piney ford on haw river & on the north side of said River." Usage was “north” for the northeast side of the Haw and “south” for the southwest side.[7] This decision to place the courthouse and other county facilities near the western end of the Eno-to-Haw road rather than on its eastern end reflected the influx of people into the Hawfields and to the lands west of the Haw River.
The rapidity with which the piedmont attracted new arrivals was reflected anew with the legislature’s decision to re-site the courthouse after it had been used less than two years. When Orange County was created, the Pine Ford crossing was near its center. While newcomers were pouring into the lands watered by the Haw and its tributaries, the lands of the Yadkin were being settled as well, and there were calls for a new county in that area. In 1753 the colonial legislature created Rowan County, thereby removing the vaguely defined western edge of original Orange County. With Rowan County extending eastward nearly to the present Alamance-Guilford boundary, Pine Ford was no longer near the center of Orange County but near its western edge. 
Memory of the location of the first courthouse for Orange County was retained for a time. During the Revolutionary War, many people were anxious to register ownership of their land with the state government, and there was a rush of land entries during 1778-79. Several land entries mention “the old court house tract” as a boundary, always located in “the waters of Back Creek.” In October 1778 George Hodge made an entry for 624 acres, which he described as being “on the waters of Back Creek a branch of Haw River, it being the tract of Land Commonly Called the Old Courthouse tract.” His neighbors in describing their land added that they were adjacent to “the old court house tract.”[8]

     Where was the courthouse? One begins with the justices’ agreement that the courthouse, stocks and jail be placed within two miles of Pine Ford on the northeast side of the Haw River. The vicinity of the Pine Ford crossing historically saw continual use as the focus of the river crossing and the site of commerce and manufacturing at the river’s edge. Granite Mill was constructed beside the crossing, and both the North Carolina Rail Road Company and the builders of highways (U.S. 70 and N.C. 49) sited bridges in the vicinity. The natural function as a ford is manifest both at ground level and in geologic mapping: the river is unusually broad and normally shallow and island-studded in the area encompassing Pine Ford. The Quaker-Back confluence is slightly more than two miles from the Pine Ford vicinity via N.C 49 east and Bason Road. Even assuming road shifts, it appears that the justices stipulated that the courthouse be within two miles of Pine Ford because they did not want to require court travelers to use both fords. 

Just west of the Quaker-Back confluence there was sufficient high ground for public facilities and roads to be safe from any high water at that crossing. The confluence of Otter, Quaker, Stag and Back creeks is masked by a reservoir today. The courthouse, jail and stocks would have been placed on the high ground, on the Trading Path, now Bason Road. 

   This portion of the Trading Path became connected with the crossing north of Reedy Fork by way of the road authorized in 1753. Their intersection appears in the Collet and Mouzon maps as a fork clearly associated with the Quaker-Back confluence, the “waters of Back Creek.” The fork became a crossroad in the nineteenth century. Some of its crossroad functions appear in the first surveyed map of Alamance County, William Luther Spoon’s 1893 map. Spoon showed Piny Grove Church at a crossroad that today lingers as the Bason Road-DeWitt Drive intersection. He labeled a “district school” about a quarter of a mile west of the church. The district school of Spoon’s day probably was the pre-Civil War “common school” known as Maple Spring School, for it was at the center of the Maple Spring district of the 1850s. Placement of the school and church reflect the public functions of nineteenth century crossroads.[9] In this case, the crossroad had originated with the 1753 order for a new road from the “courthouse to Giles Tillets” on the Reedy Fork. Similarly, the placement of present day Belview Baptist Church continues the link with the 1753 road and the court house, as does “Chapel Road” leading from Bason Road in the direction of Back Creek. Chapel Road intersects Bason Road at the location of Spoon’s “district school.” Spoon did not show Chapel Road, indicating either that it was not a public road at the time or that it had not yet been formed. The land along Bason Road at these crossroad remnants is high and broad, overlooking the submerged crossing of Otter and Quaker creeks. 

3.  Glimpses of the Court House "in the waters of Back Creek"
copyright 1999 Alamance County Historical Association

A few details have survived concerning the Orange County courthouse in “the waters of Back Creek.” They are from manuscript sources: the court minutes and a traveler’s account.
The justices of the peace contracted with one of their number, Marmaduke Kimborough, to build the courthouse, stocks and jail. As was the practice, Kimborough provided two sureties that he would build the facilities at his own expense. He could expect to be paid after completion of the work, but he stood to benefit also from the tavern and lodging trade that court sessions would bring. Kimborough had operated an in Edgecombe County ordinary, and there had been a petition to move the county court to be nearer his establishment.[10]
The other justices specified that the courthouse would be 32 by 22 feet with a pitch of 11 feet, “framed & weather boarded with feather edge plank & shingled Roof.” The prison was to be 20 by 12 feet, with a central partition. It was “to be made of hewed Logs eight inches thick, weather boarded with feathered Edged plank, with a shingled Roof & floored above & below of hewed Loggs.” Further, the contract stipulated that the “work is to be finished in a workmanlike manner within two Years from the date hereof.” In the meantime, however, the courthouse was to be “fit for the Reception of his Majesties Justices at their next sitting”.[11] The minutes of this first session of the Orange County court ended as follows: “Court adjourned till Court in Course to be held at the place where the Courthouse is to be Built.” The law had set the next session for December 1752. The minutes for that session, which opened 10 December 1752, indicate that the court met “at the Court house at Mr Kimbrough.” The court met there for all four 1753 sessions and the March 1754 session. The December 1753 session granted Kimborough a license to keep an ordinary “at his home” and also granted a license permitting Brasel Brasher to keep a second “Ordinary at the Court house”.[12]
A traveler who kept a journal was at this Orange County court house during the September 1753 court and spent the night at Kimborough’s ordinary. Neither it nor the courthouse was yet finished – Kimborough still had nearly a year to go under his contract for the courthouse and jail. The visitor was John Saunders, an English merchant. He worked for a company with a store at Suffolk, Virginia, and he was in North Carolina expecting to meet an associate in Granville County. The man Saunders sought had left Granville County, however, and people at the Granville court suggested he might be at “Orange Court House.” At one of his stops between the Granville and Orange courts, Saunders learned that his associate intended going to Pee Dee River in South Carolina. When Kimborough confirmed this and said he himself was going to Pee Dee soon, Saunders entrusted Kimborough with messages and retraced his way back to Suffolk. “Orange Court House” was the end of the line for Saunders. He had had the usual bad experiences with eighteenth century backcountry roads and ordinaries. He was not impressed with Kimborough’s buildings, but he said the food there was better than most.

Other than the court minutes, Saunders’ brief journal provides the only glimpse of the Orange County court at its meeting “on the waters of Back Creek.” Saunders recorded that after crossing the Eno River and “riding fifteen Mile,” his party 

got to Orange Court house, where was Sundry people assembled and their Appearance did not prejudice me much in their favour but I soon understood they were j- - - -ces of this Court wch disapated our fears a little and they soon left us and we had pretty good Enter[tainme]nt, Mr. Kimbro keeping ordinary but the houses excessive bad being built of Logs and them laid verry far from Close, that our lodging room was verry Airy and verry light notwithstanding we had never a window.

It is possible that the court met in Kimborough’s place of business rather than in a separate “courthouse.” Such usage was common while courthouses were under construction. That would not have been consistent with the September 1752 court directive for Kimborough to have the courthouse “fit for the Reception of his Majesties Justices at their next [i.e. December 1752] sitting,” however. Moreover, Saunders’ reference to “buildings” of similar construction suggests that both the ordinary and the courthouse (and perhaps also the jail) were logged, floored, and covered but not yet chinked.

Finally, Saunders’ notebook has a story of its own. In 1863, a Union soldier found it and a Revolutionary era rifle boarded up together in an Edenton house, stole both, and signed the book: John T. Crook.[13]


4.  Where was Pine Ford?
copyright 2000 Carole Watterson Troxler

     Documents cited in the discussion so far indicate that the court house site was within two miles of the “Pine Ford” or “Piney Ford” on the Haw River. The road linking the court house site with Pine Ford is assumed to have been a section of the pre-existing Trading Path. The following eighteenth century transactions relate to Pine Ford and the road connecting it with the site of the 1752-54 court house in “the waters of Back Creek.”
     Early in 1779, the Orange County Court ordered a “new road” from “Orange Old Court house to Haw River.”[14] This seems to be the origin of the course taken by Bason Road and NC 49 today, linking the court house site and the east river front via an awkward turn where the land begins its descent to the river. This 1779 “new road” (now Main Street east of the river), gave direct access to Trollinger’s ferry.[15] Prior to the river access given by the “new road,” travelers used the old road to Pine Ford and then, if they preferred to use the ferry rather than ford the stream, they went downstream to Trollinger’s landing. Thus the new 1779 road was a convenience for ferry passengers, and travelers with cargo would find the ferry especially appealing. The direct route to the ferry was convenient also for landowners along the new route, for they stood to benefit from its commercial potential. The crossing was, and would continue to be, a major thoroughfare for east-west travelers, many of whom were participants in the westward migrations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. No documentation has surfaced to indicate a commercial use of the old Pine Ford, and it appears to have remained free to public access as a traditional crossing associated with the indigenous Trading Path. 
The Orange County court in August 1761made two orders regarding road maintenance that indicate that Pine Ford and Trollinger’s ferry were near each other but were not regarded as the same place and that they were functioning simultaneously at that time.[16] For the east side of the river, the court appointed Anthony Stanford to supervise the maintenance of the “road from James Burnhill’s [Barnhill] to the pine ford and the Ferry at Trollinger’s on Haw River.” Thus part of that east bank road connected the ferry with the ford. The court made a road order for the west bank relative to the ford and the ferry as well. They court appointed Michael Holt Jr. overseer of “the Road from Pine Ford on Haw river to the fork of the Road westward, and from Trollinger’s ferry into said Road.” This “Road from Pine Ford on Haw river to the fork of the Road westward” had originated as the section of the Trading Path on the west bank of the Haw. The road order’s reference to a fork suggests that the Path connected with a newer settlement road. The road order also indicates that the road “from Trollinger’s ferry into said Road” likewise was a settlement road, created specifically to connect the ferry with the older course.[17]
These 1761 references to the ford, the ferry and the roads serving them show parallel roads (roughly north-south) connecting the ford and the ferry on either side of the river. There was one east-west road, and it was the indigenous Trading Path, with its termini at Pine Ford. The newer roads had been created to link the riverside termini of the Trading Path with Trollinger’s ferry downstream. Subsequent commercial development focused on the ferry site, and Pine Ford slipped from memory, both as a site and as a name. Even so, the public ford was still in use in 1815, when the Orange County Superior Court ordered John Trollinger to “use all means with the hands under him to put the road and ford over Haw River in the best repair possible." Perhaps the free ford still competed with the family’s crossing enterprise; Trollinger ignored the order, and the court indicted him and threatened a ¦20 fine to force his compliance.[18]
The chief natural feature of the Haw River in the town bearing its name is its dramatic widening; it is, of course, no accident that this shallow stretch occurs at the historic commercial and manufacturing core of the town. From at least 1779 to the present, the key commercial crossing has been near Trollinger’s ferry, fed since 1779 by roughly east-west approaches to the southern portion of the river’s wide swath. Today’s east-west approach is N.C. 49. Where was the indigenous Trading Path crossing that European settlers called “Pine Ford” in relation to this crossing? 
One can project a course for the Trading Path from the vicinity of the court house site directly to the river’s wide stretch. If the mind continues Bason Road unbent at its intersection with N. C. 49, the projected Trading Path reaches the river near the mouth of a stream just north of Granite Mill, nearly half a mile north of the N. C. 49 bridge. There is no feature in the natural terrain to significantly deflect this hypothetical course, which reaches the river in the northern portion of the shallow stretch. The small stream is nearly matched on the west side of the river by another branch slightly downstream. The mapmaker William Luther Spoon in 1893 labeled the western stream “Fall Branch” and showed its mouth at the southern end of Granite Mill.[19] When the land still was forested, trickles such as these marked low runs of terrain, offering access to travelers crossing the shallow stretch.
Spoon’s 1893 map marked the eastern branch but did not record its name. Given his diligence in recording stream names, this omission is taken to indicate that the name had slipped from the cultural memory by 1893. The name of the small stream still was in use in the 1850s, at least by the Trollingers. It is the last vestige of the memory of Pine Ford. The rivulet was called “Pine Hill Branch” in the eighteenth century, suggesting that the hill it descended obtained the name “Pine Hill” while the “Pine Ford” crossing was in use. Thus in 1778, when William Hodge made the entry for his grant of 240 acres, he described the land as being on the Haw River “at the mouth of Pine Hill Branch.” In 1856, when Benjamin Trollinger sold half his interest in the Haw River Company and its Granite Mill, he began the boundary description with, “where Pine Hill Branch flows into Haw River.” Using the road course projected above, the mouth of Pine Hill Branch is two miles from the Bason Road-Chapel Road intersection, the site of the mid-nineteenth century school.[20]

Pine Hill Branch and Fall Branch suggest the location of “Pine Ford on the Haw River,” natural markers surpassed only by the river’s own wide swell.



[1] Emphasis added. Trollinger obtained the maximum riverfront, the typical practice. His 160 acres was in the shape of a right triangle, with the river as the hypotenuse and the Trading Path the long side. The 275 acres his father, (Adam Trollinger, 1681-1776), bought from Granville in 1761also was on the west side of the river. As early as 1755, Moravian travelers recorded the expectation that travelers would not camp on Trollinger’s side. North Carolina Division of Archives and History (hereafter NCA), Secretary of State, Land Grants, 89-I, 101-K; Adelaide L. Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. (Raleigh: N.C. Historical Commission, 1922) 2: 145. 
[2] Nancy Barger in the 1970s recorded oral tradition placing the Indians’ c.1800 customary gathering place and camp site approximately on the site of Granite Mill. Such lingering Indian usage reflected their long use of the crossing place that Europeans called “Pine Ford,” along the wide, usually shallow, stretch of the river at that spot. Alamance County Historic Site files,[Nancy Barger], 1978 Inventory of Haw River Historical Sites.
[3] Joan de la Vandera, Memoria de Joan de la Vandera. Coleccion de varios documentos para la historia de la Florida y tierras adyacentes compiled by Buckingham Smith 1857. Tomo I. Londres: Trubner y compania.
[4] Greensboro Historical Museum, “A Map of North Carolina,” (London: J. Stockdale, 1795); maps by Nicholas Comberford 1657, Ogilby c. 1672, Edward Moseley 1733, John Collet 1770, Henry Mouzon, 1775 in William P. Cumming, North Carolina in Maps. Raleigh: Archives and History, 1966; U.S. Geological Survey Maps, Alamance Co., ed. 1981-1994, Mebane Quadrangle (hereafter, U.S.G.S.); Alamance County Board of Commissioners Road Map, 1992; William L. Spoon, Map of Alamance County, 1893; Douglas L Rights, “The Trading Path to the Indians,” NCHR 8: 403-426. 
[5] NCA, Orange County Minutes Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions (hereafter Orange CPQS) 1752-1754.
[6] Minutes of road commissioners, March 1753, filed following Sept 1755 court minutes, Orange CPQS; NCA, Secretary of State, Patent Books (hereafter SS PB), 12: 20, 35, 36, 48, 14: 346, 40: 460. 
[7] Orange Co. CPQS Sept. 1752.
[8] The tract was bounded on the south by James Stockard, on the north by Freeland, and on the east by Hutcheson. James Anderson also listed it as adjacent. Chain carriers were John Elmor and Jacob Bason. SS PB 40:294, abstracted in abstracted in Pat Shaw Bailey, Land Grant Records of North Carolina Volume I Orange County 1752-1885 p.p. 1990, 21.
[9] Similarly, a near-crossroad of four components showed between Quaker and Stag’s creeks in Spoon’s 1893 map, and much of it is retained today in Miles Chapel, Mebane-Rogers and Bason roads. These roads between Quaker and Stag’s creeks offer some visibility for details that could not be incorporated into eighteenth century maps. Spoon 1893; U.S.G.S.; North Carolina Collection, Chapel Hill, [School] map of Alamance County, n.d. [1855]. 
[10] Walter Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina (hereafter SRNC) 23: 390, 399, 25:271-272.
[11] Orange CPQS July 1752.
[12] Orange CPQS 1752-1754.
[13] NCA, “Journal of a Journey to Pee Dee,” John Saunders Notebook.
[14] Orange CPQS Feb 1779.
[15] Adam Trollinger (1681-1776) moved his family to the Haw River by 1745. They used the river for fishing, grist milling and later cotton manufacturing. With land along the Trading Path on the west side of Pine Ford, the family pursued commercial uses of the crossing site itself. Local tradition associates Adam Trollinger’s oldest son, Jacob Henry, with the ferry and the latter’s son, Henry, with the first bridge at the crossing, a toll bridge replacing the ferry. Orange County records show that in 1832 a bridge was built at county expense. Adam Trollinger grave marker; Orange CPQS November 1832; 1926 Address to Trollinger Family Reunion, William Thornton Whitsett Papers, SHC.
[16] Orange CPQS August 1761.
[17] Stanford and Barnwell lived on the east side of Haw River; Holt and the men listed in his road crew lived on the west side. Ibid.; SRNC 26:1286-1290.
[18] NCA, Orange County Superior Court Minutes September 1815.
[19] U.S.G.S.; Spoon 1893.